History of the stereo movie

History of the stereo movie

History of the stereo movie

Getting started

Back in 280 BC. e . Euclid first discovered that the perception of spatial depth is achieved precisely because each eye sees a slightly different images of the same object. In 1584 the theme for the research undertaken by Leonardo da Vinci . It was only in the 17th century stereoscopic perception theory was presented in the form of scientific German optician and geometry Johannes Kepler.

In 1833, Charles Wheatstone invents mirror stereoscope (Fig. 1) - a device that allows you to see the three-dimensional image using a pair of paintings starting at offset . As objects scientist initially used his drawings because photography was invented only six years later in 1839.

Стереоскоп Уитсона
Wheatstone stereoscope (Fig. 1)

An important point of development - 50s . 19th century, when David Bryuster set at the stereoscope two lenses (Fig. 2) at a distance of 2.5 inches from each other , reinforcing the effect of viewing.
  Стереоскоп Дэвида Брюстэра
David Bryustera stereoscope (Fig. 2)

Its peak development stereoscopes reached in 1856, when it sold over one million copies , and it is only in England. By 1860, as today every home TVs are almost all houses were stereoscope with a different set of stereo . With their help, you can go on a world tour or watch the staged scenes.
But improvement stereoscopes development of 3D-technology does not stop there.

Opening the anaglyph technology
Important historical moment was the opening of a method for producing the so-called anaglyph image description which took Wilga Rollman in 1853 in Germany. Inventor told about the separation process stereokartinok using colored filters : red and blue . Rollman revealed such technology that if you create a pattern of red and blue stripes on a black background and look at them through the filter corresponding to each color , the red stripes disappear when viewed through a blue filter , and blue - if you look through the red.
Added technology in 1858, Charles d'Almeida , who has demonstrated the scientific community in Paris of stereo separation method using colored glasses (Fig. 3) and gave it a widely used method by demonstrating a wider audience.

Glasses for viewing anaglyph technology for
Figure 3

Method was improved by Louis Ducos du Oron in 1891. It was he who gave the name of the method - anaglyph . In 1869 he published a monograph describes the technology combination of three colors - red , yellow and blue , which is obtained using any shade . And thus laying the basis for the theory of color-coding .
By the end of the 1910s, progress in the form of radio and film strongly pressed the old stereoscope - his popularity has taken a beating.

The first stereoscopic
 Since then, as the British film pioneer William Freese Green filed a patent application on the method of production of stereoscopic movie ( late 1890s ) began an era of stereoscopic cinema. Method based on the fact that the images from the two films were projected on the screen next to each other , and the viewer is invited to look through a stereoscope , combining two images in one frame. However, because the method involves the use of unwieldy equipment , its use in theaters seemed impractical. Moreover , the inventor got into debt , and his experiments to "freeze" .
In 1900, Frederick Eugene Ives patented setup for stereo . His camera was equipped with two lenses , spaced at a distance of 1.75 inches (~ 4.44 cm).
Already 10 June 1915 U.S. carriers Edwin Porter and William Waddell demonstrated at New York Theatre " Astor " series of experimental films made by an anaglyph method . Sessions wore symbolic technologies and were not aimed at making a profit.
In 1922 , the premiere of the tape "The Power of Love "- the first full-length 3D- movie. Camera was designed by Harry Feyrollom producer and cinematographer Robert Elder. The film was shown to double the film in red- green anaglyph .
In the history of cinema 3D- fit and Lumiere Brothers , because they managed in 1934 to re-shoot his short film made a lot of noise " Arrival of a Train " from a 2D format 3D. In 1936 Louis Lumiere improved characteristics of filters and applied them for the first anaglyph stereoscopic display .
In 1937, this technology was acquired by American kinofirmu MGM and Paramount. According to an anaglyph method removed before 1977.

The invention is a method of the gate
While some scientists have perfected anaglyph technology Laurens Hammond and William Cassidy in 1922 proposed a method , which later became known as the gate . The essence of the method: the audience issued a special device with two eyepieces and trailers, which are synchronized with the projectors . Quickly displayed on the screen shots taken from different points, which quickly gave way , and then the curtain closed alternately left then right eyepiece . Worked out so that each eye sees "his" frame . This technology was filmed while only one film " Radio Mania."

Opening polarization technology
In 1932 Edwin Land ( later became famous as the founder of Polaroid) started the production of polarizing film . She revealed many interesting applications , including a stereoscopic . The idea is that viewers were given glasses with polarizing lenses , one of which was missing a horizontally polarized light , the second - vertically . Before lenses two projectors , one of which aired on the screen image to the left , and the other - for the right eye , also set similar filters . In the end, the audience in the cinema first opportunity to see the full stereo. This stereotehnologiya is still used in the movie in a more refined form . For example, "Avatar" was made for this technology.

Advances in domestic stereokinematografe
In 1940 in Moscow (note that these were the war years ) in the small auditorium of the cinema "Art" held a demonstration film " Weekend in Moscow." To view was also used polarization image separation .
Already February 1941 in Moscow , opened its first stereoscopic . Watch movies could without glasses (!) , By using a special screen with a slot grid . Such developments contributed to the fact that work in the field of stereo in Russia came with the 20s and mid- 30s major studies were conducted in a specially established All-Union Research kinofotoinstitute ( NIKFI ) .
After the war in 1947 on domestic screens out stereofilm "Robinson Crusoe" .

Nazi experiments
There is information about what the Third Reich were also not alien to the idea of development of 3D- movie - in the Berlin archives were found two 30-minute black-and- white ribbons in stereoscopic format. The first film , entitled " So real that you can touch ," is a video of the carnival. The viewer can see the big shots grilling sausages on the grill barbecue . The second film - " Six girls come off during the weekend " is a very frivolous character and shows how young girls from Berlin studio UFA live fast .
Pictures were shot on 35mm film with two cameras and two lenses before which probably installed special prism . It is believed that movies using technology similar level began to take off in the United States only in the 50s of XX century. However, it is still a mystery.

« Arms race »
So, in the early 1950s begins to actively develop TV. The growth of his popularity was the " interfere " rental movie in theaters , which contributed to the application of new technologies and the development of the format 3D, to draw the viewer back to watch movies in theaters.
In 1952 , the first color screen comes stereoscopic film «Bwana Devil» (« Bwana devil ") (Fig. 4) The tape was removed Arhom Obolerom technology Natural Vision. Since that time , more and more 3D- bands began to shoot using polarization technology.

  Очки для первого цветного стереоскопического фильма
Figure 4.

Next Wave stereokinematografa began in the 1960s with Archa Obolera filmmaking " Bubble " by applying new technology Space-Vision 3D. In the case of this technology, stereoscopic films were printed on a standard-size film ( images for the left and right eyes are positioned one above the other ) , and their demonstrations were necessary only specialized lenses for projectors.
In 1963, due to the proliferation of large-format films in the USSR in NIKFI system was developed «STEREO 70» ( Figure 5 . ) In 1990, award-winning «Oscar» in the nomination «For technical achievement». The principle of the «STEREO 70» is - one camera , one lens , one film. Two frames of 35 mm format placed on a 70 mm film.

Figure 5

In 1970 the company launched a Stereovision new solution for showcasing stereofilms . Unlike Space-Vision 3D, two complementary images not located one above the other , and next (all in the same frame as being " squashed " horizontally). To demonstrate the required anamorphic lens and Polaroid filters visor , so " squished " image stretched .

This period ( 60-70 years . ) Were present race in the three-dimensional cinema industry . However, those wishing to watch the "bulk " films became smaller , as many have complained about the deterioration of health (when technology was not so perfect ) after visiting the cinema and 3D begun to forget. Once the crisis period lasted until the 1980s .

Eighties in the history of 3D stereo witnessed the arrival of a large-format IMAX- 70 - mm stereo imaging, placed next to each other . The system was based on technology " STEREO 70 ."

By the end of 20th century filmmaking technology significantly improved. Filmmakers use 70 mm film has become the standard . Improved quality as demonstrated on-screen images , and the effect of 3D - the illusion of volume.

Digital stereoscopic
Since 2000 in the film industry began an era of digital cinema . In theaters began installing digital projectors . Cameramen are moving away from the film and fully transferred to digital solutions .
So , in 2003 to begin work " Ghosts of the Abyss " James Cameron with the operator Vince Pace is developing a system of digital cameras Reality Camera System.
In May 2007, a film " Scar 3D» in RealD 3D- format technology using the circular polarization of light . This technology is similar to the IMAX with the difference that the circular polarization instead of linear stereo allows you to save and avoid ghosting when bending head.
In 2007, the screen comes with Beowulf also has advanced technology RealD XL Cinema System - is a modification of RealD technology especially for large sizes of screens .
In 2007, Russian filmmakers and studio together NIKFI «NUKUFILM» on the technology developed Melkumov A. and S. Rozhkov , remove puppet animation film " SCARECROW ". In Vancouver (Canada) at the international conference GSCA ( Association of Producers of films for giant screens ) have been reported superiority of Russia in establishing the first stereoscopic puppet for giant screen IMAX.
These are just a few examples of 3D- movies. But in each of them were made in the development of certain jerks 3D- stereokinematografe . It is expected that with the release of films Cameron 's "Avatar 2 " and " Battle Angel Alita " in the history of 3D can write a new page .

3D popularity for decades it fell , then increased again . But it is obvious that this technology has taken a firm place in the film industry . So in 2012, planned to be released at least 50 films in 3D.